NDNP Awardee FINAL Report NEH Award Number: PJ-50035-08

NDNP Awardee FINAL Report
NEH Award Number: PJ-50035-08     NDNP State: Hawai’i
Submitted By: Martha Chantiny    Report Date: September 30, 2015

Final Performance Report

This project spanned 3 award cycles and had several no-cost extensions. It began in July 2008 and the final extension came to an end June 30, 2015.

Project Activities
Information and Marketing/Promotion

Documentation and publicity about the project and activities was made available to the public immediately and continued throughout and beyond the grant period.

The project and Chronicling America were publicized regularly starting in the second year of the first phase and publicity efforts continued throughout and beyond the project phases. Press coverage began at the very start of the project and continued through all phases. See https://hdnpblog.wordpress.com/news-room/for a complete list. Some examples include:

Workshops, presentations and instructional sessions were held as frequently as possible. See https://hdnpblog.wordpress.com/events/ for a complete list.

  • The first presentation was at a History Day event “Teaching American History” (sponsored by the US DOE and the Hawaiʻi Council for the Humanities) September 12, 2009 when Hawaiian Collection librarian Dore Minatodani introduced and demonstrated Chronicling America. Handouts are available online here: https://sites.google.com/a/hawaii.edu/ndnp-hawaii/Home/conferences-and-workshops/historyday09.
  • Co-Principal Investigator Jodie Mattos spoke about Chronicling America and other resources at the Hawai’i History Day 2015 Kickoff Event, September 19, 2015 and distributed Hawaiʻi Digital Newspaper bookmarks. See Appendices for sample of bookmarks.
  • The Hawaiʻi Digital Newspaper Project was featured in a number of exhibits and at presentations at various public libraries and at nearly every campus of the University of Hawaiʻi system. See Appendices for photo of a lobby exhibit.
  • Hands-on workshops billed as “Come and we will help you search for topics you are interested in” were held in 2013 and 2014.
  • The Hawaiʻi Digital Newspaper Project and Chronicling America have been featured in presentations at library and archives associations meetings, in Library and Information Studies classes such as “Introduction to Archives Management” and History classes such as “The United States in the Pacific”.
  • Conference presentations include two at the Pacific Islands Association of Libraries and Archives (PIALA) Conference in Chuuk, Federated States of Micronesia (FSM), November 15-19, 2010; Hawaiʻi Library Association presentation December 2011 and Poster session April 2014; National Digital Newspaper Program Awardee Meeting Lightning Round Talks, September 2012.
  • The Hawaiʻi Digital Newspaper Program hosted and was featured in the half-day Hawaiʻi Digital Resources Symposium August 2014. See Appendices for announcements.

Activities to promote and publicize the digital newspaper project continue beyond the end of the grant. The next public presentation is scheduled to take place at Kaimuki Public Library on October 20, 2015 and another Library and Information Studies classroom presentation on Wednesday, November 4, 2015.

Due to a combination of factors including the campus library planning for and then closed for renovations in 2010-11 and again in 2014-17 we were not able to schedule presentations at Kauai Community College. We had planned to make more extensive use of the campus Sakai Learning Management System “Laulima” but found that it was not an effective platform to deliver re-usable learning objects. Access is limited to students with valid current University of Hawaiʻi credentials. Students reported reluctance to use Laulima and faculty tended to use only the basic quantitative tools such as quizzes. We felt a broader audience would be reached by using the more accessible WordPress Blog platform to make topic guides and subject pathfinders available.

Project personnel

It took nearly 2 1/2 months (October-December 2008) to obtain University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa Personnel Office approval for the job description and pay band level for the position funded by the grant. The full-time Project Operations Manager began work January 2009. From August 2009 to June 2011, the Manager worked less than full time due to international student work regulations, after which he resumed full time 40-hour work. In March 2013 he resigned to take a position with the Vermont DNP. The Project Operations Manager position description was modified slightly to include responsibilities to “Create social media announcements & publicity for project” and “Develop and deliver public presentations about the project”. A graduate student assistant was hired to carry on basic project activities and she was able to train with the outgoing Manager for 2 weeks before he left. The graduate student became the next, and final, Project Operations Manager in June 2013 until she resigned to take a different position in the same department in August 2014. From that time until she left for a permanent faculty librarian position in April 2015 she contributed 10% of her time to remaining project activities[1]. The original co-Principal Investigator Joan Hori retired at the end of December 2012. Jodie Mattos, Hawaiian Collection Librarian, was selected as the new co-PI and continued in that role until the end of the third phase of the grant.

There were some challenges in dealing with HR requirements and to finding and retaining good staff and graduate assistants for temporary grant-funded positions. We were lucky to find several individuals who contributed significantly and were instrumental in keeping project activities documented, creating training materials and helping with continuity. Special thanks and appreciation to Erenst Anip and Monica LaBriola who helped get the project off to a great start and to Jennifer Beamer and Alice Kim who carried on (and carry on) the project momentum and took it over the finish line. Thanks also to NEH, which permitted us to modify our timetables and personnel allocation to be flexible enough to accommodate changes in circumstances and bureaucratic hurdles.

[1] This calculation was inadvertently left out of the final fiscal report


Major deliverables for each phase were 100,000 digital newspaper pages, corresponding 2nd generation silver negative microfilm, and historical essays for each newspaper title. Another deliverable added for the 2010-2012 phase was to produce an inventory of state newspapers in digital form. The University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa Library met all deliverable requirements. The final total is 301,097 processed, 299,500 unique pages online at Chronicling America for 23 titles, all of which have historical essays (http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/newspapers/hawaii/).

Links to each of the newspaper titles on the Chronicling America site have been added to the library Voyager Online Catalog records and thus also added to corresponding OCLC Worldcat records. Twenty-one topic guides have been written by Graduate Assistant Alice Kim and posted, freely available, on the HDNP blog: https://hdnpblog.wordpress.com/historical-articles/. 121 historical feature articles following the Chronicling America template have been published on the HDNP blog, the majority also written by Alice Kim, in the following categories: Newspaper Sections from Agriculture to Women, History & Hawaiʻi newspapers, General Interest Stories, Hawaiian Culture and Hawaiian Performers, Hawaiian Royalty, Hawaii’s Firsts, Native Hawaiians on the U.S. Mainland, Organizations, Writers & Artists in Hawaiʻi, Advertisements and Political Cartoons. Perhaps a unique accomplishment of any state participant in NDNP is the production of a free downloadable iBook created by Jennifer Beamer: Hawai’i Newspapers Digitized Newspapers from 1836 – 1922 https://itunes.apple.com/us/book/Hawaiʻi-newspapers/id904056250?mt=11


The audience for the project materials includes students, scholars, historical research professionals, teachers and members of the general public both in the state of Hawaiʻi and worldwide.

An effort was made to include newspapers from across the state – from Hawaiʻi Island, Maui and Kauai as well as the capitol island of Oahu. Our outreach efforts were designed to bring awareness of the broad coverage and to highlight a variety of ways the newspapers can enrich learning. Project staff and Hawaiian Collection librarians have increased awareness of Chronicling America across a spectrum of students and teachers via History Day events and Library & Information Studies class, presentations at public and academic libraries, across the state on Hawaiʻi Island, Maui and Oahu. All the newspapers are represented in the University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa Digital Repository eVols as PDF issues which are crawled, indexed and discoverable by Google.

We do not get statistical information on demographics of usage from Chronicling America however we do have “Top 10 Country” statistics for views of the PDF versions of the newspapers available in eVols. The United States is the country of origin of most visits but views and downloads are significant from other countries including China, France, Russian Federation, Germany, United Kingdom, Ukraine, India, and Canada.

Former project Graduate Assistant Alice Kim reports “people tell me that they have looked at the topic guides and historical feature articles for research in Hawaiʻi history, which were usually accessed through search engines (e.g. Google). For example, I am currently editing a non-fiction book about a local ukulele company. When the author was researching for her book, she used information from the article about Hawaiian performers on the U.S. mainland and was surprised to see my name on the bottom”. She also notes that the HDNP blog gets a lot of hits from Iolani School (a private high school). We believe that instructors and librarians there have integrated the historical topic guides into their curriculum.

Days of Grace a 2015 book about California artist Grace Hudson in Hawaiʻi used clippings from the Hawaiʻi Digital Newspapers. Authors Karen Holmes and Sherrie Smith-Ferri of the Grace Hudson Museum included an acknowledgement of the National Digital Newspaper Program in the front matter.


This project was not formally evaluated except for quality control of the submitted digital files and editorial review of the title essays. Thanks to an experienced vendor, relatively good quality microfilm and detailed pre- and post-digitization QA by the Project Operations Manager we had to do very little resubmitting of digital files.

Views of the blog posts have increased steadily as have downloads of the PDF newspaper issues from eVols (2011=162,805, 2012=502,222, 2013=833,596, 2014=1,040,753). Library of Congress has provided web page statistics only for 2011-12 and 2012-13, views and visits increased each year:

Pages Page Views Visits
2011-12 332824 290394 20247
2012-13 428,118 391,570 23,877

ChallengesWe had ear-marked some of our grant funds to send Deb Thomas of Library of Congress and at least one project staff person to the annual PIALA (Pacific Islands Association of Libraries, Archives, and Museums) Conference in November 2012, when it was held in Guam, an unincorporated territory of the United States. It would have been a good chance to introduce Chronicling America to almost all library and archives staff from everywhere in the Pacific region including potential grant participants from Guam and American Samoa. However changes in Library of Congress policies prohibited travel reimbursement from external funding sources to Ms. Thomas and required all costs be incurred directly by the sponsoring organization. Trying to arrange travel schedules and accommodations across nearly 8,000 miles with a 14-hour time difference crossing the date line was logistically insurmountable. We were not able to use the grant funds as we had hoped to spread the word and assist the professional development of Pacific librarians by bringing the Library of Congress NDNP representative to the conference.

We were not able to digitize as many issues of the Hilo newspaper as we had intended because the master microfilm could not be located. Library of Congress generously loaned us their 3 bound volumes of the Hilo Tribune so that the library could microfilm them and then process the microfilm for the project. A plan to use print copies from the Hawaiian Historical Society to continue the microfilming, then digitize, has been in limbo for several years because of processing backlogs and other issues related to pre-microfilm preparations by the library Preservation department.

We were not able to use the totality of our grant funds, partly because the actual costs of some services decreased markedly over the span of the project, partly because of delays inherent in the State of Hawaiʻi/University hiring and purchasing systems and because there were gaps in project staff employment as well as staff shortages within the library. In April 2015 we reported to NDNP:

University of Hawaiʻi will not be able to spend the last bit of our grant funds … there has been a “perfect storm” confluence of events such that it is better if we pass the funds back to NEH than ask for another extension. After our long-time fiscal officer retired there was only a short period of time when we had a newly hired “real” fiscal officer – who left the library almost a year ago.  Since that time the Fiscal office has also lost another long-time, experienced staff person and they are limping along short-staffed with an interim FO.

Our NDNP Project manager took another job last August, but luckily it was in my department so she could continue doing some NDNP work as part of her “other duties”.  Alas, she has now left for a reference librarian position, so I don’t have anyone to help with the logistics and technical aspects of processing microfilm and checking digitization work.  Plus, of course, my department is now down a person.

Meanwhile, in the Serials department, through which we process microfilm orders — they have recently lost experienced staff to retirement and are very much embroiled in handling the fallout and recovery from the bankruptcy of our serials aggregator, Swets.
Between the rigors and hoops of the Hawaiʻi state purchasing process, the University’s fiscal system and the under- and over-stretched staff – I just don’t think we can do any more at this point.

We very much appreciated that, after consulting with NEH and documenting a fiscal situation or proposing an alternative use of funds, we had the ability to modify and adapt our plan of work when circumstances changed. We were able to meet our production requirements in a timely manner and undertake a broad range of outreach activities thanks to guidance from program staff at NEH/NDNP/Library of Congress.

Continuation of the Project

Students, researchers and the general public are very enthusiastic about these newspapers being available online. Viewers are always disappointed to learn that the cutoff date is 1922 because of copyright issues. Via email and in-person discussions we have consistently found that users do not realize what a labor and time intensive enterprise it is to create a product as valuable and broadly functional as Chronicling America.

Smaller scale digitization of community newspapers is on the Library’s “wish list” to be carried out as funding becomes available however it is unlikely that the UHM Library will be able to afford to continue digitizing newspapers at the scale and to the technical requirements of the NDNP without major grant assistance.

UHM Library relies on Library of Congress and Chronicling America to be the primary trusted digital repository for these important newspaper resources. If it were possible to contribute smaller amounts to Chronicling America, without being full grant participants, the Library might regularly allocate a portion of “reformatting” budget to continue adding to the strong base in Chronicling America. The Library would like to pursue another NDNP round to complete digitization of the last major newspaper title: Pacific Commercial Advertiser 1911-1922 and to complete the Hilo Tribune 1906-1917 (currently no master microfilm exists).

The Hawaiian Historical Society (HHS) was a partner in all phases of the NDNP grant. Working together strengthened existing relationships between the institutions. In 2012, the HHS was awarded a $25,000 challenge grant for a project to preserve the Society’s newspaper collection. Those papers, which date from 1834 to around 1930, include the only known copies of Portuguese-language newspapers. As a result of our partnership, the University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa Library added the PDF images created during the microfilming of the HHS newspapers to an eVols repository community “Newspapers published in Portuguese in Hawaiʻi, 1885 to 1927” as a complement to the community “Newspapers published in English in Hawaiʻi, 1862-1923” where the issue PDFs from our Chronicling America titles are loaded.

Long Term Impact

During the third round of our project we focused very strongly on outreach because the technical aspects were well understood and our title selection was simpler than in the first 2 rounds. We developed a number of reusable handouts and posters. We printed a large quantity of bookmarks that have been, and continue to be, distributed at local and national library conferences, to classes and placed at library service points in public and academic libraries throughout the state. The topic guides, historical essays and Research & Curriculum Resources page on the HDNP blog, as well as the LibGuides used in library instruction are publicly available for use and re-use.

A more intangible long-term impact is the ripple effect of the variety of professional development opportunities provided to the Project Managers and Graduate Assistants who have worked on the project. They were able to attend professional conferences and meetings, speak in front of a variety of audiences and learn and utilize new concepts and skills.

The participation of UHM Library in the NDNP program has helped University campus administrators to understand the important role and range of contributions to learning and knowledge that the library plays. It may have been a significant factor in the offer made in late 2010 by the Associate Vice Chancellor for Research to the University Librarian to provide one-time funding to facilitate digitization of library materials. The Library presented a packet of reformatting proposals and purchase of a sophisticated digital overhead scanner for printed materials was approved. A Quartz A1 Digibook scanner was installed in April 2012. The UHM Library has used it to digitize a rare print run from the Hawaii State Archives collection of the newspaper Hawaii Mainichi that will be made available via eVols by late 2015.

Grant Products

Several value-added products were created during the production of the digital files and essay deliverables.

  • The online version of “Helen Chapin’s Guide to Newspapers of Hawai’i, 1834-2000” (http://www.Hawaiianhistoricalsociety.org/ref/chapinmultisearch.php) which served as the guide for title selection for the project, was updated by the first project Graduate Assistant by adding University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa Call Numbers location and online availability information to newspaper records.
  • To complement and enhance the newspaper project and findability of newspaper titles statewide, the library digitized and OCR’d 2 print finding aid union lists produced during the precursor US Newspaper Program:
  • Hawaiʻi newspapers a union list. Lists all known extant newspapers since 1834, excluding titles known to have existed but not held by any known institution http://hdl.handle.net/10524/2089
  • Inventory of newspapers published in Hawaiʻi: preliminary list, which includes titles with no known holdings. http://hdl.handle.net/10524/11832
  • 45,046 links from the locally created “Bob Krauss Research Index: an index of English-language newspapers from Hawai‘i, 1840-1944” (http://manoa.hawaii.edu/hawaiiancollection/krauss/) to specific Chronicling America newspaper pages have been added.
Krauss index entries Matching Chron America dates
Daily Bulletin (344 index entries) 109
Evening Bulletin (8 index entries) 5
Hawaiian Star (2,682 index entries) 2675
Hilo Daily Tribune (18 index entries) 3
Honolulu Star-Bulletin (8,792 index entries) 2567
Maui News (105 index entries) 105
Pacific Commercial Advertiser (29,388 index entries 28077
Polynesian (11,621 index entries) 879
Polynesian (11,621 index entries) 10626

See an example here: http://Mānoa.Hawaiʻi.edu/Hawaiiancollection/krauss/multiprocess.php?boolean1=1&terms1=Hawaiian+star&fields1=4&booleanb1=1&boolean2=1&terms2=&fields2=1&booleanb2=1&boolean3=1&terms3=&fields3=1

Appendices in the following PDF include examples of published announcements, mailings, exhibits, handouts and representative screen shots of websites resulting from the grant.

Completed work can be viewed on the Library of Congress Chronicling America web site and the University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa Library eVols collection Newspapers published in English in Hawaiʻi, 1862-1923

Conference presentations, instructional materials and handouts are listed and linked on the project HDNP blog site and material is available in the eVols repository

Examples of published announcements are attached and all are linked on the project HDNP blog site

Follow-up questions about this report or the Hawaii Digital Newspaper Program may be directed to Martha Chantiny <chantiny@hawaii.edu>